Castleton Dig (and a bit of Brough) 2019

The University of Sheffield led two digs this year – one in Castleton at New Hall (behind the Methodist Chapel) and one in Brough near the Roman fort of Navio, both in July/August. In addition, in Castleton a handful of test pits were excavated at the side of Peaks Hole Water near Buxton Road.

As a bonus the dig had it’s own artist this year – see some of her results at the end of the blog post below including a lovely rendition of New Hall.

Navio

The Brough site had visits from a number of groups including children from Castleton and Bradwell Primary schools, and from South Yorkshire and Peak District YACs (Young Archaeologist Clubs). It was ideal for school visits because it was big and there was a lot of Roman pottery to be found – mainly Samian ware and Derbyshire grey ware. Amongst other finds were part of a quern-stone (for milling grain) and large pieces of amphorae (food storage vessels).

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Test pits

Linda and Rob’s test pit was notable for its depth…

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New Hall

Documentary sources suggest that New Hall was built as a late medieval house, around 1500. For at least 100 years it was home to different members of the Savage family, then in the early 1600s it came under the ownership of the Morewoods. It was sold off in 1825 and by the time of the 1841 census it was divided into three dwellings, home to 25 members of the Beverley, Platt and Wildgoose families. As time went on parts of the buildings fell into decay as can be seen from paintings, etchings and a photograph that survive of the Hall in the 19th century. By 1881 it was uninhabited. From the pictures the house ended up as a building of three wings; front, back and a cross wing. There was also a block of stables or outbuildings running down to Buxton Road.

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New Hall c.1864

The old building was demolished around 1890 and a few years later the land was bought by the Wesleyan Methodists for their new chapel which opened in 1898.

This year the focus was on finding the back wing of the house with the thought that it could be the earliest i.e. late medieval part. That idea was largely based on the fact that nothing medieval had been identified in any of the other areas excavated so far and the cross-wing was likely to be a later addition.

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The turf, topsoil and demolition layer have to come off before any interesting features emerge.

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Whilst the 2019 trench wasn’t huge, the outcome of the excavation was exciting. The trench appears to have reached well into the footprint of the back wing. To the front of it there was an area of stone flags within which a gap was discovered.

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At first it was thought there might be a cellar beneath. In the end, once one of the large capping stones was lifted, it turned out to be a well, nicely lined with stone. It was two metres deep down to the sediment and it filled up with water after heavy rainfall (remember Whaley Bridge?).

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The fact that the well was capped before New Hall was demolished suggests that its use (as a point for drawing water) ceased at some point during the history of the building. Next year, hopefully, and with sufficient time, it will be possible to investigate it properly.

Stephen and his mini digger made back-filling a doddle again..

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Finds cleaning went on throughout the dig with help from Gill and others, especially during wet weather when trench work was rained off.

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Thanks

To volunteers including some very hard working students, and to Kay Harrison, David Bostwick and Andrew Bower for valuable insights into New Hall and its history.

 

Illustrations from Castleton and Brough sites by Rosie Cockrell

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New Hall

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The illustrations and their interpretation        Rosie Cockrell

My illustrations were built on observations of what made up the whole excavation. This included landscapes with rolling hills and buildings, the animals surrounding us and the activities in the trenches. From my experience with archaeologists, I know that as well as the interior of a trench, the humps, slopes and fabric of the hills and valleys tells them about the past. For me, this made the landscapes important to record as well. To demonstrate this importance, I drew them in a precise, colourful way.

Illustrations are made up of narratives. Archaeology is also like storytelling. It suggests to us aspects of people’s everyday life, that can be very different to ours. With this in mind, I made a reconstruction drawing of what the house at the New Hall excavation site might have looked like. I used information from the excavation and old images of the house to do this. It meant I was able to combine the storytelling of archaeology with my own way of representation.

Another aspect of the excavation that I enjoyed was the sense of community. As well as students, a range of people participated in the dig. This included volunteers, professional archaeologists and even school children. Many people already knew each other. I have a personal interest in drawing people, so with many different people doing different things I had an opportunity to study body shapes in a different scenario to what I was used to. I particularly enjoyed drawing a group of archaeologists sitting and talking together in a relaxed way. It emphasised that the excavation wasn’t just a job but a community with genuinely interested people taking part.

 

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Members’ Visit to Spital Cemetery in Chesterfield

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The oldest grave is that of a late 12th or early 13th century priest whose remains were reinterred in 2001

On July 20, 2019, members of the Historical Society visited the Spital Cemetery in Chesterfield for a guided tour of the first public cemetery in the town.

It was opened in August 1857 in response to a need for burial spaces for a rapidly increasing (and dying!) population.  It also responded to the demands of non-conformists who did not wish to be buried in accordance with the rites of the Church of England.  Initially there was no provision for Catholics but in 1859 land was consecrated for their burial.

You can read a full account of this fascinating visit here and also find out more about the cemetery on the Friends of Spital Cemetery website.

 

 

 

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The Mystery of the Templer Obelisk

 

Hidden beneath a shroud of ivy and brambles in St Edmund’s graveyard for many years, an obelisk erected in memory of members of the Templer and Needham families has recently been brought to light.  It has proved to be a rather mysterious object whose history still needs to be explained.  

What is particularly intriguing is the wealth of Freemasonry symbols and letters inscribed on the obelisk.  In addition to the well-known hammer, square and compasses, the letters HTWS STKS appear intertwined in the carvings. These apparently stand for Hiram Tyrian Widow’s Son Sent To King Solomon.  If anyone can explain the significance of this- please let CHS know.   Read more about this fascinating object by following this link…

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The Origins & Survival of Castleton Garland Ceremony: Frank Parker

On the 15 November 2018, Castleton Historical Society held its final meeting of the year, in the Village Hall. What a fantastic evening it turned out to be. Frank Parker, a CHS member, introduced his film about the Castleton Garland Ceremony to an expectant audience of more than 60, several of whom had participated in the Garland Ceremony over many years. The film was entitled “The Castleton Garland Ceremony: Origins and Survival” and was the product of several years detailed and painstaking research by Frank and Kay Harrison.  Read the full report here

 

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Castleton Dig 2018

Monday 9th July dawned warm, dry and sunny and that’s how it continued for almost all of the four week dig.  There were trenches on both the medieval hospital on Spital Field and at the New Hall site behind the Methodist Chapel. As usual, Colin Merrony from Sheffield University led the work with Tim and Lee supervising on the hospital and New Hall respectively. This year’s willing slaves were mainly volunteers, supplemented with students – both undergraduate and postgraduate. Taking part in the excavations were primary school children, more mature people 🙂 and university students of many different nationalities. Thanks go to all our volunteers and to everyone who has allowed us access to sites or helped in other ways. We’re lucky to have the support of some very community-minded and interested people.

What did the digs reveal this year? For a taste of the action and some of the findings see the sequences of photographs below – one sequence for the medieval Hospital of the Blessed Mary and the other for New Hall.

Hospital site

During last year’s excavation of the foundations of the chapel, evidence of disturbed burials was found outside the south wall,and investigation of these became the primary objective for 2018.

The turf was removed from a 4 x 12m area that overlapped previous trenches from 2013 and 2017. As the ground was so dry, it was relatively easy to cut and stack the turves.

 

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The backfill from the area over previous trenches was removed by Stephen with his mini-digger (this saved a couple of days of hard graft – hooray!) but from the new, previously undisturbed area the topsoil was removed by hand. The first finds from the topsoil of the 2018 part of the trench included medieval pottery, animal teeth and bone including antler, and probable fragments of human bone. These were all likely to have been redeposited from mid-1900s infrastructure works close to the dig site.

 

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By Wednesday lunchtime all the terram membrane had been removed, the trench was cleaned back so that it could be recorded with photos, planning and levels.

 

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Next day the trench was extended at the NW corner in order to include possible burial areas found in 2017, as had been indicated by a number of skulls and a few long bones. On the left (west) of the image below you can see the previously unexcavated area. A pair of human leg bones are projecting east from the old 2017 trench edge, in the expected orientation for a Christian burial.

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Work could then begin in earnest and lots of our regular volunteers turned up to help out.

 

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One week in, some evidence of further burials was found, together with a few interesting artefacts.

 

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We were pleased to have visits from two groups of Young Archaeologists again this year – Peak District YAC and Sheffield YAC. The members of both clubs had an introduction to the archaeology, worked on the Spital Field site and helped wash some finds.

 

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Our osteologist arrived on the scene just at the right time….

 

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Where possible the burials were carefully recorded.

 

 

Regular volunteer Tina was joined by a friend…

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Finally it was a case of recording the site, then protecting all the burials and other features with terram, once again! We had the benefit of mechanical back-filling once more, and then finished off by putting back the turf. All we need now is some rain to get the grass growing again,

 

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A very productive few weeks has told us that the burial ground around the chapel was used much more than the findings from previous years had suggested. Each year of archaeology adds another piece to the story of our small rural medieval hospital.

New Hall

Activities on the New Hall site started a few days after opening the trench on the Hospital site. The objective this year was to open up part of the 2017 trench and an area to the north and west, and dig deeper, aiming to identify earlier phases of the building.

It wasn’t only Isabella removing turf – her colleagues were having a break….

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…and soon there were plenty more people working on site.

 

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The New Hall site generates a lot of artefacts – rusty metal, glass, pottery and some animal bone. Most of the finds are associated with demolition of the hall, in the late 1800s and a few years before the Wesleyan Methodist Chapel was built. Since digging on this site numerous fragments of ornate plasterwork have been found. Since last year,  David Bostwick, a historic buildings consultant has taken a particular interest in this plaster as its patterns can be used to find connections between different historic houses in the area. With this in mind any pieces of ornate plaster were collected this year.

 

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Once topsoil and redeposited material had been removed a number of features were found – walls and floors. A rather nice piece of pottery stuck in mortar enabled an earliest date to be assigned to one of the  walls – apparently it was an example of “pearlware”, and no earlier than 1780 (C. Cumberpatch).

 

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Then the site was recorded – when it’s dry, soil features don’t show up so well, so Lee watered everything before Colin flew the drone for aerial photography. When looking through these photos, the more observant may notice that the nice gazebos present earlier (to provide some welcome shade for volunteers) had disappeared. This was due to high winds that sprang up towards the end of the dig and sadly one of our nice gazebos suffered some trauma. However happily it has been given a new lease of life on a Sheffield allotment as a fruit cage….

 

 

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Before closing the site it was all planned and then covered in terram.

 

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…and then it was backfilled and turf replaced. Apart from some re-seeding when it starts raining again, all has been reinstated after another year’s archaeology at New Hall.

 

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Visit to Bishops’ House: Members’ Night, July 19, 2018

IMG_0080.weblgMembers’ Night on July 19th found us on a sunny evening gathered at Bishops’ House, the earliest & best preserved example of a Tudor framed house in Sheffield.  The first part of the building was built in 1554 with an extension being added in 1580.  We were then guided by Ken Dash on a fascinating tour of the building and its history, described fully in the following account: Visit to Bishops’ House

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Castleton Museum Awarded Full Accreditation

The Arts Council has recently awarded full accreditation to Castleton Museum which is run by Castleton Historical Society.  This fantastic outcome is the result of much hard work by a group of CHS trustees to ensure that the Museum meets the very high standards set by the Arts Council England.  These national standards are set to ensure that accredited museums are well managed and offer the visitors the best experience possible.  Congratulations to the Accreditation Team!

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